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The water vole (Arvicola amphibius) is Britain's most endangered mammal, having gained protection under Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act in 2008. We present an overview of a range of naturally occurring pathogens and parasites in this rare species, which might negatively impact population persistence for small or declining populations. Wild water voles were live-captured in 2004 and 2006 from sites throughout the UK and were screened for a range of pathogens. These included: Puumala virus, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Leptospira spp., Bartonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Babesia microti and Trypanosoma spp. E. coli was the most prevalent with 46/74 (62. 2%; 95% CI, 51-73) individuals infected. One vole was co-infected with seven different pathogens whilst 20% of individuals were pathogen-free. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Original publication




Journal article


European Journal of Wildlife Research

Publication Date





615 - 619