Development and validation of the Kilifi Stigma Scale for Epilepsy in Kenya.
Mbuba CK., Abubakar A., Odermatt P., Newton CR., Carter JA.
The aim of this study was to develop and validate a tool to measure perceived stigma among people with epilepsy (PWE) in Kilifi, Kenya. We reviewed existing scales that measured stigma, particularly of epilepsy. We conducted a qualitative study to determine salient concerns related to stigma in Kilifi. Themes were generated, and those related to stigma were used to construct an 18-item stigma scale. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was then conducted among 673 PWE to assess the reliability and validity of the scale. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach's alpha and test-retest reliability with an interclass correlation coefficient. The final scale had 15 items, which had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.91) and excellent test-retest reliability (r=0.92). Factor analysis indicated that the scale was unidimensional with one factor solution explaining 45.8% of the variance. The Kilifi Stigma Scale for Epilepsy is a culturally appropriate measure of stigma with strong psychometric properties.