Direct measurement of glutathione in epidermal cells of intact Arabidopsis roots by two-photon laser scanning microscopy.
Meyer AJ., Fricker MD.
Two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) was used to directly measure glutathione (GSH) as its fluorescent glutathione S-bimane conjugate (GSB) in developing root hair cells (trichoblasts) and non-root hair cells (atrichoblasts) of intact Arabidopsis roots. In comparison to confocal microscopy, TPLSM showed more detail deep within the tissue with less signal attenuation. The total level of GSB labelling reached a plateau after 60 min in both trichoblasts and atrichoblasts, reflecting depletion of GSH. GSB was formed initially in the cytoplasm and was subsequently transported into the vacuole. The volume ratio of vacuole to cytoplasm was determined using the Cavalieri estimator of volume and used to calculate the amount of GSB per volume of cytoplasm in each cell type. At the end of the time-course the cytoplasmic concentration of GSB was 2.7 +/- 0.5 mM (n = 5) in trichoblasts and 5.5 +/- 0.8 mM (n = 5) in atrichoblasts. In trichoblasts this value represents the initial concentration of GSH in the cytoplasm. Labelling of roots with monochlorobimane (MCB) on ice led to the formation of GSB in the cytoplasm, but prevented vacuolar sequestration. After washing prelabelled roots and transfer to room temperature, vacuolar transport resumed. Although no free MCB was present the total amount of GSB in atrichoblasts increased further, indicating that the higher values recorded in the atrichoblasts might reflect additional symplastic transport and sequestration of GSB from neighbouring cells.