Cookies on this website
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Continue' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

We report evidence from three sets of experiments dealing with spatially parallel grouping of parts in single objects. A first set of experiments demonstrates that parts can be encoded in a spatially parallel manner in three-dimensional (3-D) objects, while there is a serial selection of parts across objects. A second set of experiments further shows that grouping in 3-D is less affected by eliminating collinearity between the parts of objects than grouping in two dimensions, suggesting that 3-D constraints operate directly on visual grouping. A final pair of experiments demonstrates that rotating the elements in the plane, to make a physically unstable 3-D object, disrupts the benefit found with 3-D stimuli when collinearity is eliminated. The evidence indicates that there is rapid and spatially parallel encoding of 3-D object descriptions in vision.

Original publication




Journal article


Percept Psychophys

Publication Date





1060 - 1085


Attention, Depth Perception, Discrimination Learning, Female, Form Perception, Humans, Male, Orientation, Perceptual Closure, Psychophysics