Type 1 and type 2 cytokine regulation of macrophage endocytosis: differential activation by IL-4/IL-13 as opposed to IFN-gamma or IL-10.
Montaner LJ., da Silva RP., Sun J., Sutterwala S., Hollinshead M., Vaux D., Gordon S.
Cytokine regulation of endocytic activity in primary human macrophages was studied to define ultrastructural changes and mechanisms of pinocytic regulation associated with cytokines secreted by activated T cells. The effects of IFN-gamma (type 1) and IL-4/IL-13 and IL-10 (type 2) cytokines on fluid phase and mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis were assessed by horseradish peroxidase and colloidal gold-BSA uptake and computer-assisted morphometric analysis. IL-4 and IL-13 enhanced fluid phase pinocytosis and mannose receptor-mediated uptake by activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Inhibition of actin assembly showed that both cytokines exerted actin-dependent and -independent effects. Ultrastructurally, IL-4 and IL-13 increased tubular vesicle formation underneath the plasma membrane and at pericentriolar sites, concurrent with decreased particle sorting to lysosomes. By contrast, IL-10 or IFN-gamma decreased both fluid phase pinocytosis and mannose receptor-mediated uptake. IFN-gamma stimulated increased particle sorting to perinuclear lysosomes, while IL-10 decreased this activity. In summary, our data document differential effects on macrophage endocytic functions by type 1 or type 2 cytokines associated with induction and effector pathways in immunity.