Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Brain glucose sensing is critical for healthy energy balance, but how appropriate neurocircuits encode both small changes and large background values of glucose levels is unknown. Here, we report several features of hypothalamic orexin neurons, cells essential for normal wakefulness and feeding: (i) A distinct group of orexin neurons exhibits only transient inhibitory responses to sustained rises in sugar levels; (ii) this sensing strategy involves time-dependent recovery from inhibition via adaptive closure of leak-like K(+) channels; (iii) combining transient and sustained glucosensing allows orexin cell firing to maintain sensitivity to small fluctuations in glucose levels while simultaneously encoding a large range of baseline glucose concentrations. These data provide insights into how vital behavioral orchestrators sense key features of the internal environment while sustaining a basic activity tone required for the stability of consciousness.

Original publication




Journal article


Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A

Publication Date





11975 - 11980


Adaptation, Biological, Animals, Appetite Regulation, Electrophysiology, Glucose, Hypothalamus, Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins, Mice, Mice, Transgenic, Neurons, Neuropeptides, Orexins