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The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) process complementary information for planning and evaluating behavior. This suggests at least that processes in these two areas are coordinated during behavioral adaptation. We analyzed local field potentials recorded in both regions in two monkeys performing a problem-solving task that alternated exploration and repetitive behaviors with the specific prediction that neural activity should reveal interareal coordination mainly during exploration. Both areas showed increased high gamma power after errors in exploration and after rewards in exploitation. We found that high gamma (60-140 Hz) power increases in ACC were followed by a later increase in LPFC only after negative feedback (errors) or first positive feedback (correct) during the exploration period. The difference in latencies between the two structures disappeared in repetition period. Simultaneous recordings revealed correlations between high gamma power in the two areas around feedback; however, correlations were observed in both exploration and repetition. In contrast, postfeedback beta (10-20 Hz) power in ACC and LPFC correlated more frequently during repetition. Together, our data suggest that the coordination between ACC and LPFC activity is expressed during adaptive as well as stable behavioral periods but with different modes depending on the behavioral period.

Original publication




Journal article


J Neurosci

Publication Date





11110 - 11117


Adaptation, Physiological, Animals, Brain Mapping, Brain Waves, Electroencephalography, Feedback, Physiological, Gyrus Cinguli, Linear Models, Macaca mulatta, Male, Neuropsychological Tests, Prefrontal Cortex, Reaction Time