Increased in-stent stenosis in ApoE knockout mice: insights from a novel mouse model of balloon angioplasty and stenting.
Ali ZA., Alp NJ., Lupton H., Arnold N., Bannister T., Hu Y., Mussa S., Wheatcroft M., Greaves DR., Gunn J., Channon KM.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop and validate a model of angioplasty and stenting in mice that would allow investigation of the response to stent injury using genetically modified mouse strains. METHODS AND RESULTS: Aortic segments from either C57BL/6 wild-type or atherosclerotic ApoE-KO mice underwent balloon angioplasty alone or balloon angioplasty and stenting with a 1.25x2.5 mm stainless steel stent. Vessels were carotid-interposition grafted into genetically identical littermate recipients and harvested at 1, 7, 14, or 28 days. In wild-type mice, stenting generated an inflammatory vascular injury response between days 1 to 7, leading to the development of neointimal hyperplasia by day 14, which further increased in area by day 28 leading to the development of in-stent stenosis. Uninjured vessels and vessels injured by balloon angioplasty alone developed minimal neointimal hyperplasia. In stented ApoE-KO mice, neointimal area at 28 days was 30% greater compared with wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS: By reproducing important features of human stenting in atherosclerotic mice, we provide the potential to investigate molecular pathways and evaluate novel therapeutic targets for stent injury and restenosis.