Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether micrographia in patients with Parkinson's disease is lessened either by giving visual targets or by continually reminding them that they should write with a normal amplitude. METHODS: Eleven patients with Parkinson's disease (mean age 65.4 years) were compared with 14 control subjects (mean age 67.1 years). The subjects wrote with a stylus on a graphics tablet. There were three conditions: free writing, writing with dots to indicate the required size, and writing with continuous verbal reminders ("big"). Each condition was performed twice. RESULTS: The patients wrote with a more normal amplitude when given either the visual cues or the auditory reminders. This improvement persisted when, shortly afterwards, the patients wrote freely without external cues. The increase in amplitude was achieved mainly by an increase in movement time rather than in peak velocity. CONCLUSION: Whereas the visual cues directly specified the required amplitude the auditory reminders did not. One effect of external cues is that they draw attention to the goal, and thus encourage the patients to write less automatically.


Journal article


J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry

Publication Date





429 - 433


Aged, Analysis of Variance, Antiparkinson Agents, Humans, Parkinson Disease, Time Factors, Wechsler Scales, Writing