Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Clock-shifted homing pigeons were tracked from familiar sites 17.1 km and 23.5 km from the home loft in Pisa, Italy, using an on-board route recorder. At the first release site, north of home, the majority of clock-shifted birds had relatively straight tracks comparable with those of control birds. At the second release site, south of home, the clock-shifted birds deflected in the direction predicted for the degree of clock shift, with many birds travelling some distance in the wrong direction before correcting their course. The possible role of large-scale terrain features in homing pigeon navigation is discussed.


Journal article


J Exp Biol

Publication Date





207 - 212


Animals, Biological Clocks, Columbidae, Flight, Animal, Homing Behavior, Orientation