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The cerebrovascular bed is very sensitive to CO 2 changes, particularly the areas responsible for generation and control of respiratory rhythm. We have used BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and externally induced CO 2 challenges that stimulate respiration, to identify respiratory areas in-vivo in humans and to quantify the dynamic effects of CO 2 on the BOLD fMRI signal (dynamic CO 2 reactivity). We sought to identify regional differences in dynamic reactivity within the brainstem and other respiratory related areas (thalamus) by using linear impulse response (IR) and nonlinear Volterra models, as well as experimental measurements obtained during spontaneous breathing and larger externally induced step CO 2 changes (end-tidal forcing). The results revealed areas in the brainstem and thalamus that responded strongly to the external CO 2 stimuli, which correspond to respiratory nuclei identified in recent rodent studies, as well as pronounced regional differences in CO 2 reactivity.

Original publication

DOI

10.1109/BIBE.2008.4696667

Type

Journal article

Journal

8th IEEE International Conference on BioInformatics and BioEngineering, BIBE 2008

Publication Date

01/12/2008