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To identify the roles of the two nucleotide-binding folds (NBFs) in the function of human P-glycoprotein, a multidrug transporter, we mutated the key lysine residues to methionines and the cysteine residues to alanines in the Walker A (WA) motifs (the core consensus sequence) in the NBFs. We examined the effects of these mutations on N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and ATP binding, as well as on the vanadate-induced nucleotide trapping with 8-azido-[alpha-32P]ATP. Mutation of the WA lysine or NEM binding cysteine in either of the NBFs blocked vanadate-induced nucleotide trapping of P-glycoprotein. These results suggest that if one NBF is non-functional, there is no ATP hydrolysis even if the other functional NBF contains a bound nucleotide, further indicating the strong cooperation between the two NBFs of P-glycoprotein. However, we found that the effect of NEM modification at one NBF on ATP binding at the other NBF was not equivalent, suggesting a non-equivalency of the role of the two NBFs in P-glycoprotein function.


Journal article


Biochim Biophys Acta

Publication Date





131 - 136


ATP-Binding Cassette, Sub-Family B, Member 1, Adenosine Triphosphate, Cysteine, Ethylmaleimide, Humans, Protein Binding, Protein Folding, Vanadates