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Phosphodiesterases are key enzymes in the cAMP signaling cascade. They convert cAMP in its inactive form 5'-AMP and critically regulate the intensity and the duration of cAMP-mediated signals. Multiple isoforms exist that possess different intracellular distributions, different affinities for cAMP, and different catalytic and regulatory properties. This complex repertoire of enzymes provides a multiplicity of ways to modulate cAMP levels, to integrate more signaling pathways, and to respond to the specific needs of the cell within distinct subcellular domains. In this review we summarize key findings on phosphodiesterase compartmentalization in the cardiovascular system.

Original publication




Journal article


Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol

Publication Date





H379 - H390


Cardiovascular System, Cyclic AMP, Humans, Myocardium, Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases, Signal Transduction