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Four experiments were carried out in which the probability of free recall of words as a function of serial position within lists was examined. The lists were presented either auditorily or visually, with subjects either silent or engaged in irrelevant articulation, and with recall either immediate or after an auditory or visual intervening task. The results provide evidence for the presence of modality-specific capacity limitations in primary memory, and also indicate that forgetting may occur in a last-in, first-out manner. © 1979 Springer-Verlag.

Original publication




Journal article


Psychological Research

Publication Date





273 - 289