The dynamic localisation of the Drosophila APC/C: evidence for the existence of multiple complexes that perform distinct functions and are differentially localised.
Huang J-Y., Raff JW.
In Drosophila cells, the destruction of cyclin B is spatially regulated. In cellularised embryos, cyclin B is initially degraded on the mitotic spindle and is then degraded in the cytoplasm. In syncytial embryos, only the spindle-associated cyclin B is degraded at the end of mitosis. The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) targets cyclin B for destruction, but its subcellular localisation remains controversial. We constructed GFP fusions of two core APC/C subunits, Cdc16 and Cdc27. These fusion proteins were incorporated into the endogenous APC/C and were largely localised in the cytoplasm during interphase in living syncytial embryos. Both fusion proteins rapidly accumulated in the nucleus prior to nuclear envelope breakdown but only weakly associated with mitotic spindles throughout mitosis. Thus, the global activation of a spatially restricted APC/C cannot explain the spatially regulated destruction of cyclin B. Instead, different subpopulations of the APC/C must be activated at different times to degrade cyclin B. Surprisingly, we noticed that GFP-Cdc27 associated with mitotic chromosomes, whereas GFP-Cdc16 did not. Moreover, reducing the levels of Cdc16 or Cdc27 by >90% in tissue culture cells led to a transient mitotic arrest that was both biochemically and morphologically distinct. Taken together, our results raise the intriguing possibility that there could be multiple forms of the APC/C that are differentially localised and perform distinct functions.