An integrated disease management strategy for the control of rabies in Ethiopian wolves
Randall DA., Marino J., Haydon DT., Sillero-Zubiri C., Knobel DL., Tallents LA., Macdonald DW., Laurenson MK.
Infectious diseases pose an important extinction risk for a number of endangered carnivore populations. Wild canids are particularly susceptible to generalist pathogens transmitted from domestic dogs - particularly rabies virus and canine distemper virus (CDV). Here we present a review of rabies as a threat to Ethiopian wolves, an endangered canid restricted to a few isolated Afro-alpine ranges in the Ethiopian highlands, and the impact of rabies on the largest population in the Bale Mountains. In the Bale Mountains, two confirmed rabies outbreaks among Ethiopian wolves in 1991-1992 and 2003-2004 were each responsible for over 70% mortality among focal packs and a third rabies outbreak was suspected in 1990. This review also presents an integrated disease management strategy for Ethiopian wolves combining long-term population monitoring, disease surveillance, conventional and emergency vaccination programs, and advanced modelling techniques. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.