Distribution, behavior, and conservation status of the Rufous Twistwing (Cnipodectes superrufus)
Tobias JA., Lebbin DJ., Aleixo A., Andersen MJ., Guilherme E., Hosner PA., Seddon N.
The Rufous Twistwing (Cnipodectes superrufus), a newly described Amazonian tyrant-flycatcher, is known from five specimens and five localities in Cuzco and western Madre de Dios departments, Peru. We report three additional specimens and eight new localities extending the known range of the species east across Dpto. Madre de Dios, Peru, into Dpto. Pando, Bolivia, and Acre State, Brazil. The new localities increase the distribution from ∼3,400 to ∼89,000 km 2 . We collected biometric data from five individuals, made behavioral observations in the field, and recorded three separate types of vocalizations, two of which (including the song) were previously unknown. We provide quantitative description of these vocalizations, consider their function, and compare them with vocalizations of the only known congener, the Brownish Twistwing (Cnipodectes subbrunneus). Unique vocal repertoires support the classification of these two forms as sister species. The Rufous Twistwing resembles the Brownish Twistwing in producing loud vocalizations from regular song posts and both species appear to have a polygamous mating system. We provide further evidence consistent with the hypothesis the Rufous Twistwing is a Guadua bamboo specialist and recommend that it be listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.