Phylogeny of Eulophidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), with a reclassification of Eulophinae and the recognition that Elasmidae are derived eulophids
Gauthier N., Lasalle J., Quicke DLJ., Godfray HCJ.
Eulophidae is a large and biologically varied family of parasitoid wasps, traditionally split into four subfamilies; Elasmidae is a uniform (single genus) and morphologically distinct family of wasps that are thought to be related to Eulophidae. The D2 region of the 28S rDNA gene (≃560bp) of eighty-seven species of eulophid, three species of elasmid and sixteen outgroup species in five families was sequenced. Cladograms were constructed, and the results compared with conclusions drawn from morphological studies. The gene was most informative at the level of subfamily and tribe. The monophyly of both Eulophinae and Tetrastichinae is supported; that of Entedoninae and Euderinae is less clear. Results indicate that Eulophinae is a derived group within Eulophidae, rather than an ancestral group as previously thought, and that Elasmus, the sole genus of Elasmidae, belongs within this subfamily. The tribes of Eulophinae are reassessed and only three accepted: Eulophini (including Euplectrini and Elachertini), Elasmini and Cirrospilini LaSalle trib.n. for Boucek's Ophelimini with Ophelimus and Australsecodes excluded. Three small Australian tribes, Anselmellini, Ophelimini and Platytetracampini, are removed from Eulophinae and Entedoninae, respectively, but their exact relationships and subfamily status cannot as yet be decided. Another tribe, Keryini, known from a single Australian genus, is excluded from both Eulophinae and Eulophidae.