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In oviparous vertebrates, maternal steroid allocation to eggs can have important fitness consequences for the offspring. However, elevated testosterone levels are not only associated with beneficial postnatal effects, such as enhanced growth and high social status, but may also entail costs by suppressing the immune system. In this study, testosterone levels in eggs of Chinese painted quail (Coturnix chinensis) were experimentally manipulated to evaluate its effects on growth and immunocompetence. Testosterone did not affect embryonic development, body size or growth during the first 20 days. However, elevated testosterone levels during embryonic development were immunosuppressive for chicks with inherently higher growth rate. Adaptive scenarios where only beneficial effects of increased testosterone levels are considered may therefore need to be re-evaluated.

Original publication




Journal article


J Evol Biol

Publication Date





501 - 505


Analysis of Variance, Animals, Body Weight, Coturnix, Egg Yolk, Immunity, Cellular, Testosterone