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Inbreeding resulting from the mating of two related individuals can reduce the fitness of their progeny. However, quantifying inbreeding depression in wild populations is challenging, requiring large sample sizes, detailed knowledge of life histories and study over many generations. Here we report analyses of the effects of close inbreeding, based on observations of mating between relatives, in a large, free-living noninsular great tit (Parus major) population monitored over 41 years. Although mating between close relatives (f > or = 0.125) was rare (1.0-2.6% of matings, depending on data set restrictiveness), we found pronounced inbreeding depression, which translated into reduced hatching success, fledging success, recruitment to the breeding population and production of grand offspring. An inbred mating at f = 0.25 had a 39% reduction in fitness relative to that of an outbred nest, when calculated in terms of recruitment success, and a 55% reduction in the number of fledged grand offspring. Our data show that inbreeding depression acts independently at each life-history stage in this population, and hence suggest that estimates of the fitness costs of inbreeding must focus on the entire life cycle.

Original publication




Journal article


J Evol Biol

Publication Date





1531 - 1543


Animals, Inbreeding, Mating Preference, Animal, Phenotype, Songbirds