Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with sudden early recovery (SER) from anaesthesia in badgers (Meles meles). STUDY DESIGN: Experimental trial. ANIMALS: Ninety-three adult wild badgers. METHODS: Animals were randomly assigned to receive one of four anaesthetics based on medetomidine (M) ketamine (K) and butorphanol (B) combined in different ratios: (i) MKB 20:40:80 microg kg(-1); (ii) MKB 20:40:60 microg kg(-1); (iii) MKB 20:60:40 microg kg(-1); and (iv) ketamine alone 0.2 mg kg(-1). For each animal, induction time was measured and physiological variables (heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature) were recorded at 5-minute intervals during anaesthesia. Cases of SER were recorded and binary logistic regression applied to identify predictive factors. RESULTS: Fourteen animals (15%) exhibited SER. Rectal temperature was the only variable that was a significant predictor of SER. Animals showing SER had significantly higher rectal temperatures which, in contrast to other cases, did not fall during the first 10 minutes of anaesthesia, which was when most SERs occurred. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We recommend that (i) rectal temperature is closely monitored during wild badger anaesthesia and (ii) that animals with higher than expected temperatures are treated with additional caution.

Original publication




Journal article


Vet Anaesth Analg

Publication Date





48 - 52


Analgesics, Anesthesia Recovery Period, Anesthesia, General, Animals, Animals, Wild, Body Temperature, Butorphanol, Fever, Heart Rate, Ketamine, Mustelidae, Rectum, Respiration, Treatment Outcome