Comparison of AMP and NADH binding to glycogen phosphorylase b.
Stura EA., Zanotti G., Babu YS., Sansom MS., Stuart DI., Wilson KS., Johnson LN., Van de Werve G.
The binding sites for the allosteric activator, AMP, to glycogen phosphorylase b are described in detail utilizing the more precise knowledge of the native structure obtained from crystallographic restrained least-squares refinement than has hitherto been available. Localized conformational changes are seen at the allosteric effector site that include shifts of between 1 and 2 A for residues Tyr75 and Arg309 and very small shifts for the region of residues 42 to 44 from the symmetry-related subunit. Kinetic studies demonstrate that NADH inhibits the AMP activation of glycogen phosphorylase b. Crystallographic binding studies at 3.5 A resolution show that NADH binds to the same sites on the enzyme as AMP, i.e. the allosteric effector site N, which is close to the subunit-subunit interface, and the nucleoside inhibitor site I, which is some 12 A from the catalytic site. The conformations of NADH at the two sites are different but both conformations are "folded" so that the nicotinamide ring is close (approx. 6 A) to the adenine ring. These conformations are compared with those suggested from solution studies and with the extended conformations observed in the single crystal structure of NAD+ and for NAD bound to dehydrogenases. Possible mechanisms for NADH inhibition of phosphorylase activation are discussed.