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BACKGROUND: Self-harm is increasingly common in many countries, is often repeated and may have other negative outcomes. AIMS: To systematically review people's attitudes towards clinical services following self-harm in order to inform service design and improvement. METHOD: A search of electronic databases was conducted and experts in the field were contacted in order to identify relevant worldwide qualitative or quantitative studies. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers with more weight given to studies of greater quality and relevance. RESULTS: Thirty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Despite variations in healthcare systems and setting, participants' experiences were remarkably similar. Poor communication between patients and staff and a perceived lack of staff knowledge with regard to self-harm were common themes. Many participants suggested that psychosocial assessments and access to after-care needed to be improved. CONCLUSIONS: Specific aspects of care that might increase service user satisfaction and treatment adherence include staff knowledge, communication and better after-care arrangements. A standard protocol could aid regular audits of users' experiences of services.

Original publication




Journal article


Br J Psychiatry

Publication Date





104 - 110


Adolescent, Adult, Attitude of Health Personnel, Databases, Bibliographic, Drug Overdose, Female, Hospitalization, Humans, Male, Mental Health Services, Patient Participation, Patient Satisfaction, Qualitative Research, Self-Injurious Behavior