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Smartphone sensors are used increasingly in the assessment of ataxias. To date, there is no specific consensus guidance regarding a priority set of smartphone sensor measurements, or standard assessment criteria that are appropriate for clinical trials. As part of the Ataxia Global Initiative Digital-Motor Biomarkers Working Group (AGI WG4), aimed at evaluating key ataxia clinical domains (gait/posture, upper limb, speech and oculomotor assessments), we provide consensus guidance for use of internal smartphone sensors to assess key domains. Guidance was developed by means of a literature review and a two stage Delphi study conducted by an Expert panel, which surveyed members of AGI WG4, representing clinical, research, industry and patient-led experts, and consensus meetings by the Expert panel to agree on standard criteria and map current literature to these criteria. Seven publications were identified that investigated ataxias using internal smartphone sensors. The Delphi 1 survey ascertained current practice, and systems in use or under development. Wide variations in smartphones sensor use for assessing ataxia were identified. The Delphi 2 survey identified seven measures that were strongly endorsed as priorities in assessing 3/4 domains, namely gait/posture, upper limb, and speech performance. The Expert panel recommended 15 standard criteria to be fulfilled in studies. Evaluation of current literature revealed that none of the studies met all criteria, with most being early-phase validation studies. Our guidance highlights the importance of consensus, identifies priority measures and standard criteria, and will encourage further research into the use of internal smartphone sensors to measure ataxia digital-motor biomarkers.

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Journal article



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Ataxia, Digital motor performance outcome measures, Internal smartphone Sensors