Characterisation of intracellular membrane structures derived from a massive expansion of ER membrane due to synthetic ER-membrane-resident polyproteins.
Sandor A., Samalova M., Brandizzi F., Kriechbaumer V., Moore I., Fricker MD., Sweetlove LJ.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a dynamic organelle that is amenable to major restructuring. Introduction of recombinant ER-membrane-resident proteins that form homo oligomers is a known method of inducing ER-proliferation: interaction of the proteins with each other alters the local structure of the ER network, leading to the formation large aggregations of expanded ER, sometimes leading to the formation organised smooth endoplasmic reticulum (OSER). However, these membrane structures formed by ER proliferation are poorly characterised and this hampers their potential development for plant synthetic biology. Here we characterise a range of ER-derived membranous compartments in tobacco and show how the nature of the polyproteins introduced into the ER membrane affect the final compartment morphology. We show that a cytosol-facing oligomerisation domain is an essential component for compartment formation. Using FRAP, we demonstrate that although the compartment retains a connection to the ER, a diffusional barrier exists to both the ER and the cytosol associated with the compartment. Using quantitative image analysis, we also show that the presence of the compartment does not disrupt the rest of the ER network. Moreover, we demonstrate that it is possible to recruit a heterologous, bacterial enzyme to the compartment and for the enzyme to accumulate to high levels. Finally, transgenic Arabidopsis constitutively expressing the compartment-forming polyproteins grew and developed normally under standard conditions.