The interplay of TARG1 and PARG protects against genomic instability.
Groslambert J., Prokhorova E., Wondisford AR., Tromans-Coia C., Giansanti C., Jansen J., Timinszky G., Dobbelstein M., Ahel D., O'Sullivan RJ., Ahel I.
The timely removal of ADP-ribosylation is crucial for efficient DNA repair. However, much remains to be discovered about ADP-ribosylhydrolases. Here, we characterize the physiological role of TARG1, an ADP-ribosylhydrolase that removes aspartate/glutamate-linked ADP-ribosylation. We reveal its function in the DNA damage response and show that the loss of TARG1 sensitizes cells to inhibitors of topoisomerase II, ATR, and PARP. Furthermore, we find a PARP1-mediated synthetic lethal interaction between TARG1 and PARG, driven by the toxic accumulation of ADP-ribosylation, that induces replication stress and genomic instability. Finally, we show that histone PARylation factor 1 (HPF1) deficiency exacerbates the toxicity and genomic instability induced by excessive ADP-ribosylation, suggesting a close crosstalk between components of the serine- and aspartate/glutamate-linked ADP-ribosylation pathways. Altogether, our data identify TARG1 as a potential biomarker for the response of cancer cells to PARP and PARG inhibition and establish that the interplay of TARG1 and PARG protects cells against genomic instability.