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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) causes a major burden on global health, and eradication of latent virus infection is one of the biggest challenges in the field. The circadian clock is an endogenous timing system that oscillates with a ~24 h period regulating multiple physiological processes and cellular functions, and we recently reported that the cell intrinsic clock regulates rhythmic HIV-1 replication. Salt inducible kinases (SIK) contribute to circadian regulatory networks, however, there is limited evidence for SIKs regulating HIV-1 infection. Here, we show that pharmacological inhibition of SIKs perturbed the cellular clock and reduced rhythmic HIV-1 replication in circadian synchronised cells. Further, SIK inhibitors or genetic silencing of Sik expression inhibited viral replication in primary cells and in a latency model, respectively. Overall, this study demonstrates a role for salt inducible kinases in regulating HIV-1 replication and latency reactivation, which can provide innovative routes to better understand and target latent HIV-1 infection.

Original publication




Journal article


J Gen Virol

Publication Date





HIV-1, circadian rhythms, host-pathogen interactions, salt inducible kinases, Humans, HIV-1, HIV Infections, Virus Latency, Virus Replication