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The neuro-ophthalmological examination constitutes one of the most refined and exact components of the clinical examination, often allowing precise diagnosis and formulation of a treatment plan even within the compass of the first visit. This chapter briefly highlights important features in the neuro-ophthalmological history and then presents detailed information on the important components of a comprehensive neuro-ophthalmological examination. Covered examination topics include visual acuity, visual field testing, color vision, external eye exam, pupils, ophthalmoscopy, and eye movements. The final section discusses ancillary tests that supplement the bedside neuro-ophthalmological examination, including formal visual field analysis, electroretinography, fluorescein angiography, ocular coherence tomography, visual-evoked potentials, neuroimaging, and quantitative eye movement recordings.

Original publication




Journal article


Handb Clin Neurol

Publication Date





71 - 94


Color Vision, Depth Perception, Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological, Electroretinography, Eye Diseases, Eye Movements, Humans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Neurology, Optic Disk, Pupil, Tomography, Optical Coherence, Visual Acuity, Visual Fields