Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Estrogen receptor (ER) positive patient–derived xenograft (PDX) models of breast cancer are important translational tools in our pursuit for a better understanding of treatment resistance and for the preclinical evaluation of novel therapies. PDX modelling of ER+ breast cancer is traditionally associated with caveats such as low engraftment rates and absence of an immune microenvironment, leading to a paucity of ER+ models and an inability to assess immune-related effects. Furthermore, with the increased demand for modelling of therapy-resistant metastatic ER+ disease, our approach to propagating these models needs to evolve to ensure accurate recapitulation of the clinical features observed in patients with treatment-resistant breast cancer. In this review, we discuss recent major advancements in this field and the increasing utility of these models for high throughput screening of novel therapeutics.

Original publication




Journal article


Current Opinion in Endocrine and Metabolic Research

Publication Date





31 - 36