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Systemic treatment of hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer is undergoing a renaissance, with a number of targeted therapies including CDK4/6, mTOR, and PI3K inhibitors now approved for use in combination with endocrine therapies. The increased use of targeted therapies has changed the natural history of HR+ breast cancers, with the emergence of new escape mechanisms leading to the inevitable progression of disease in patients with advanced cancers. The identification of new predictive and pharmacodynamic biomarkers to current standard-of-care therapies and discovery of new therapies is an evolving and urgent clinical challenge in this setting. While traditional, routinely measured biomarkers such as estrogen receptors (ERs), progesterone receptors (PRs), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) still represent the best prognostic and predictive biomarkers for HR+ breast cancer, a significant proportion of patients either do not respond to endocrine therapy or develop endocrine resistant disease. Genomic tests have emerged as a useful adjunct prognostication tool and guide the addition of chemotherapy to endocrine therapy. In the treatment-resistant setting, mutational profiling has been used to identify ESR1, PIK3CA, and AKT mutations as predictive molecular biomarkers to newer therapies. Additionally, pharmacodynamic biomarkers are being increasingly used and considered in the metastatic setting. In this review, we summarise the current state-of-the-art therapies; prognostic, predictive, and pharmacodynamic molecular biomarkers; and how these are impacted by emerging therapies for HR+ breast cancer.

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Journal article


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biomarkers, breast cancer, estrogen receptor, pharmacodynamic, predictive, prognostic, Biomarkers, Tumor, Breast Neoplasms, Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases, Estrogen Receptor alpha, Female, Hormones, Humans, Neoplasm Metastasis, Oncogene Protein v-akt, Prognosis, Receptor, ErbB-2, Receptors, Estrogen, Receptors, Progesterone