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Two-component signaling pathways involve histidine kinases, response regulators, and sometimes histidine-containing phosphotransfer proteins. Prevalent in prokaryotes, these signaling elements have also been co-opted to meet the needs of signal transduction in eukaryotes such as fungi and plants. Here we consider the evolution of such regulatory systems, with a particular emphasis on the roles they play in signaling by the plant hormones cytokinin and ethylene, in phytochrome-mediated perception of light, and as integral components of the circadian clock.

Original publication




Journal article


Curr Biol

Publication Date





R320 - R330


Biological Evolution, Circadian Clocks, Cytokinins, Ethylenes, Eukaryotic Cells, Histidine Kinase, Light Signal Transduction, Models, Biological, Plants, Prokaryotic Cells, Protein Kinases, Signal Transduction