Tactile and multisensory spatial warning signals for drivers
Spence C., Ho C.
The last few years have seen many exciting developments in the area of tactile and multisensory interface design. One of the most rapidly moving practical application areas for these findings is in the development of warning signals and information displays for drivers. For instance, tactile displays can be used to awaken sleepy drivers, to capture the attention of distracted d rivers, and even to present more complex information to drivers who may be visually overloaded. This review highlights the most important potential costs and benefits associated with the use of tactile and multisensory information displays in a vehicular setting. Multisensory displays that are based on the latest cognitive neuroscience research findings can capture driver attention significantly more effectively than their unimodal (i.e., tactile) counterparts. Multisensory displays can also be used to transmit information more efficiently, as well as to reduce driver workload. Finally, we highlight the key questions currently awaiting further research, including: Are tactile warning signals really intuitive? Are there certain regions of the body (or the space surrounding the body) where tactile/multisensory warning signals are particularly effective? To what extent is the spatial coincidence and temporal synchrony of the individual sensory signals critical to determining the effectiveness of multisensory displays? And, finally, how does the issue of compliance versus reliance (or the "cry wolf" phenomenon associated with the presentation of signals that are perceived as false alarms) influence the effectiveness of tactile and/ or multisensory warning signals? © 2008 IEEE.