The function and regulation of ADP-ribosylation in the DNA damage response.
Duma L., Ahel I.
ADP-ribosylation is a post-translational modification involved in DNA damage response (DDR). In higher organisms it is synthesised by PARP 1-3, DNA strand break sensors. Recent advances have identified serine residues as the most common targets for ADP-ribosylation during DDR. To ADP-ribosylate serine, PARPs require an accessory factor, HPF1 which completes the catalytic domain. Through ADP-ribosylation, PARPs recruit a variety of factors to the break site and control their activities. However, the timely removal of ADP-ribosylation is also key for genome stability and is mostly performed by two hydrolases: PARG and ARH3. Here, we describe the key writers, readers and erasers of ADP-ribosylation and their contribution to the mounting of the DDR. We also discuss the use of PARP inhibitors in cancer therapy and the ways to tackle PARPi treatment resistance.