Chloroplast Proteostasis: Import, Sorting, Ubiquitination, and Proteolysis.
Sun Y., Jarvis RP.
Chloroplasts are the defining plant organelles with responsibility for photosynthesis and other vital functions. To deliver these functions, they possess a complex proteome comprising thousands of largely nucleus-encoded proteins. Composition of the proteome is controlled by diverse processes affecting protein translocation and degradation-our focus here. Most chloroplast proteins are imported from the cytosol via multiprotein translocons in the outer and inner envelope membranes (the TOC and TIC complexes, respectively), or via one of several noncanonical pathways, and then sorted by different systems to organellar subcompartments. Chloroplast proteolysis is equally complex, involving the concerted action of internal proteases of prokaryotic origin and the nucleocytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). The UPS degrades unimported proteins in the cytosol and chloroplast-resident proteins via chloroplast-associated protein degradation (CHLORAD). The latter targets the TOC apparatus to regulate protein import, as well as numerous internal proteins directly, to reconfigure chloroplast functions in response to developmental and environmental signals. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Plant Biology, Volume 74 is May 2023. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.