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PURPOSE: The scotopic macular integrity assessment (S-MAIA) can perform scotopic assessment to detect localized changes to scotopic rod and cone function. This study is an exploratory investigation of the feasibility of using the S-MAIA in a rod-cone dystrophy population to identify the pattern of loss in scotopic photoreceptor function. METHODS: Twenty patients diagnosed with a rod-cone dystrophy underwent visual acuity testing, full-field stimulus threshold assessment, and multiple S-MAIA tests after dark adaptation periods of 20 minutes and 45 minutes performed separately. Only right eyes were tested. Three tests were performed following a learning test. A Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess repeatability and agreement between tests after the two time periods. Spatial interpolation maps were created from the group plots to display the pattern of rod and cone loss. RESULTS: Learning effects took place between testing sessions 1 and 2 but not 2 and 3. Limits of agreement were larger in the patient eyes than control eyes, but within previously reported values. Using longer adaptation time of 45 minutes did not offer a significant advantage over 20 minutes. Patterns for the cyan and red sensitivities were different, indicating different patterns of loss for rods and cones. CONCLUSIONS: A dark adaptation time of 20 minutes before testing is sufficient for thresholding. The S-MAIA is suitable for use in patients with a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution vision of at least 0.7 and provides a viable outcome measure for patients with rod-cone dystrophies and preserved central vision. The spatial information about scotopic function from the S-MAIA provides information about disease processes and progression. TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE: There is a need for scotopic measures for use in clinical trials. Scotopic microperimetry works well in patients with early disease, allowing the extension of recruitment criteria for novel therapies of rod-cone dystrophies.

Original publication




Journal article


Transl Vis Sci Technol

Publication Date





Humans, Retinal Degeneration, Cone-Rod Dystrophies, Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate, Dark Adaptation, Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells