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Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders, and it affects almost 1% of the population worldwide. Many people living with epilepsy continue to have seizures despite anti-epileptic medication therapy, surgical treatments, and neuromodulation therapy. The unpredictability of seizures is one of the most disabling aspects of epilepsy. Furthermore, epilepsy is associated with sleep, cognitive, and psychiatric comorbidities, which significantly impact the quality of life. Seizure predictions could potentially be used to adjust neuromodulation therapy to prevent the onset of a seizure and empower patients to avoid sensitive activities during high-risk periods. Long-term objective data is needed to provide a clearer view of brain electrical activity and an objective measure of the efficacy of therapeutic measures for optimal epilepsy care. While neuromodulation devices offer the potential for acquiring long-term data, available devices provide very little information regarding brain activity and therapy effectiveness. Also, seizure diaries kept by patients or caregivers are subjective and have been shown to be unreliable, in particular for patients with memory-impairing seizures. This paper describes the design, architecture, and development of the Mayo Epilepsy Personal Assistant Device (EPAD). The EPAD has bi-directional connectivity to the implanted investigational Medtronic Summit RC+STM device to implement intracranial EEG and physiological monitoring, processing, and control of the overall system and wearable devices streaming physiological time-series signals. In order to mitigate risk and comply with regulatory requirements, we developed a Quality Management System (QMS) to define the development process of the EPAD system, including Risk Analysis, Verification, Validation, and protocol mitigations. Extensive verification and validation testing were performed on thirteen canines and benchtop systems. The system is now under a first-in-human trial as part of the US FDA Investigational Device Exemption given in 2018 to study modulated responsive and predictive stimulation using the Mayo EPAD system and investigational Medtronic Summit RC+STM in ten patients with non-resectable dominant or bilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. The EPAD system coupled with an implanted device capable of EEG telemetry represents a next-generation solution to optimizing neuromodulation therapy.

Original publication




Journal article


Frontiers in Neurology

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