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Latent change score models (LCSMs) are used across disciplines in behavioural sciences to study how constructs change over time. LCSMs can be used to estimate the trajectory of one construct (univariate) and allow the investigation of how changes between two constructs (bivariate) are associated with each other over time. This paper introduces the R package lcsm, a tool that aims to help users understand, analyse, and visualise different latent change score models. The lcsm package provides functions to generate model syntax for basic univariate and bivariate latent change score models with different model specifications. It is also possible to visualise different model specifications in simplified path diagrams. An interactive application illustrates the main functions of the package and demonstrates how the model syntax and path diagrams change based on different model specifications. This R package aims to increase the transparency of reporting analyses and to provide an additional resource to learn latent change score modelling.

Original publication




Journal article


Wellcome Open Res

Publication Date





R, latent change score modelling, lavaan, longitudinal data analysis, structural equation modelling