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Cognitive deficits occur in most patients with stroke and are the important predictors of adverse long-term outcome. Early identification is fundamental to plan the most appropriate care, including rehabilitation and discharge decisions. The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) is a simple, valid, and reliable tool for the assessment of cognitive deficits in patients with stroke. It contains 10 subtests, providing 14 scores referring to 5 theoretically derived cognitive domains: attention, language, number, praxis, and memory. However, an empirical verification of the domain composition of the OCS subtests in stroke data is still lacking in the literature. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on 1,973 patients with stroke who were enrolled in OCS studies in the UK and in Italy. A number of six main components were identified relating to the domains of language and arithmetic, memory, visuomotor ability, orientation, spatial exploration, and executive functions. Bootstrapped split-half reliability analysis on patients and comparison between patients and 498 healthy participants, as that between patients with left and right hemisphere damage, confirmed the results obtained by the principal component analysis. A clarification about the contribution of each score to the theoretical original domains and to the components identified by the PCA is provided with the aim to foster the usability of OCS for both clinicians and researchers.

Original publication




Journal article


Front Neurol

Publication Date





assessment, cognition, psychometrics, rehabilitation, stroke