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Cardiovascular events after primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) have emerged as a leading cause of poor functional outcomes and mortality during the long-term recovery after an ICH. These events encompass arterial ischemic events such as ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction, arterial hemorrhagic events that include recurrent ICH, and venous thrombotic events such as venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this review is to summarize the cardiovascular complications after ICH, epidemiology and associated risk factors, and their impact on ICH outcomes. Additionally, we will highlight possible pathophysiological mechanisms to explain the short- and long-term increased risks of ischemic and hemorrhagic events after ICH. Finally, we will highlight potential secondary stroke and venous thrombotic prevention strategies often not considered after ICH, balanced against the risk of ICH recurrence.

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Journal article



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cerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, venous thromboembolism