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Importance: Recent studies suggest that maintenance intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be an effective treatment to prevent relapses in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disease (MOGAD); however, most of these studies had pediatric cohorts, and few studies have evaluated IVIG in adult patients. Objective: To determine the association of maintenance IVIG with the prevention of disease relapse in a large adult cohort of patients with MOGAD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted from January 1, 2010, to October 31, 2021. Patients were recruited from 14 hospitals in 9 countries and were included in the analysis if they (1) had a history of 1 or more central nervous system demyelinating attacks consistent with MOGAD, (2) had MOG-IgG seropositivity tested by cell-based assay, and (3) were age 18 years or older when starting IVIG treatment. These patients were retrospectively evaluated for a history of maintenance IVIG treatment. Exposures: Maintenance IVIG. Main Outcomes and Measures: Relapse rates while receiving maintenance IVIG compared with before initiation of therapy. Results: Of the 876 adult patients initially identified with MOGAD, 59 (median [range] age, 36 [18-69] years; 33 women [56%]) were treated with maintenance IVIG. IVIG was initiated as first-line immunotherapy in 15 patients (25%) and as second-line therapy in 37 patients (63%) owing to failure of prior immunotherapy and in 7 patients (12%) owing to intolerance to prior immunotherapy. The median (range) annualized relapse rate before IVIG treatment was 1.4 (0-6.1), compared with a median (range) annualized relapse rate while receiving IVIG of 0 (0-3) (t108 = 7.14; P 

Original publication




Journal article


JAMA Neurol

Publication Date