Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Objective.Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a clinically effective therapeutic instrument used to modulate neural activity. Despite three decades of research, two challenging issues remain, the possibility of changing the (a) stimulated spot and (b) stimulation type (real or sham) without physically moving the coil. In this study, a second-generation programmable TMS device with advanced stimulus shaping is introduced that uses a five-level cascaded H-bridge inverter and phase-shifted pulse-width modulation. The principal idea of this research is to obtain real, sham, and multi-locus stimulation using the same TMS system.Approach.We propose a two-channel modulation-based magnetic pulse generator and a novel coil arrangement, consisting of two circular coils with a physical distance of 20 mm between the coils and a control method for modifying the effective stimulus intensity, which leads to the live steerability of the target and type of stimulation.Main results.Based on the measured system performance, the stimulation profile can be steered ±20 mm along a line from the centroid of the coil locations by modifying the modulation index.Significance.The proposed system supports electronic control of the stimulation spot without physical coil movement, resulting in tunable modulation of targets, which is a crucial step towards automated TMS machines.

Original publication




Journal article


J Neural Eng

Publication Date





TMS, TMS pulse generator, brain stimulation, multi-target stimulation, sham stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, Electronics, Heart Rate, Magnetics, Movement, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation