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Introduction. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and of the pars interna of Globus Pallidus (GPi) is used to improve parkinsonian symptoms and attenuate levodopa-induced motor complications in Parkinson's disease (PD) (DBS for PD study group, 2001). It is still not clear what the best anatomic structures to stimulate are or what the physiologic effects of DBS are. Most of the studies regarding DBS for parkinsonian symptoms have been conducted in patients with STN implantation, and these studies reported significant improvement in motor function with a relatively low rate of complication. The large experience of ablative surgery associated with the DBS experience of some groups worldwide indicate that GPi is a possible and very promising target for the management of parkinsonian symptoms. Surgical procedures have become safer and it is now possible, in selected cases, to target both structures in the same patient by means of the stereotactic system, "3P Maranello" (CLS-SRL, Italy). Using this system we were able to evaluate the clinical effects of simultaneous stimulation of both STN and GPi as well as evaluate the effects of isolated stimulation of each target. As it is known that there is a high intersubject variability of DBS, it seems relevant to test all different combinations of DBS in the same patient. Methods. We assessed the effects of DBS in 13 cases of PD, immediately after (30 min) stimulation and during chronic stimulation (weeks or months). Patients fell into two groups. The first (n = 7) responded to both GPi and STN stimulation equally. The second group (n = 6) was preferentially stimulated with only one target (STN = 5, GPi = 1). Results. There was a good reduction in levodopa treatment following surgery. Most patients remained were chronically treated with bilateral stimulation of both targets. Conclusion. We conclude that DBS of STN and GPi was effective, with most patients treated chronically with both targets stimulated.

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