Subthalamic gamma activity in patients with Parkinson's disease.
Trottenberg T., Fogelson N., Kühn AA., Kivi A., Kupsch A., Schneider GH., Brown P.
Depth recordings in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have demonstrated oscillatory activity in the gamma frequency (60-100 Hz) band in local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from the region of the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Although this activity has been hypothesised to contribute to movement preparation, it is unclear to what extent these LFP oscillations arise in the STN and are synchronous with local neuronal discharge. We therefore recorded LFPs and neuronal activity from microelectrodes inserted into the STN in PD patients during functional neurosurgery. Eight sides in seven patients out of 15 sides in 12 patients were identified that had peaks in the gamma band in spectra of LFPs. As microelectrodes descended towards STN, there was a pronounced increase in gamma frequency band LFP activity 1 mm above the line joining the anterior and posterior commissures and 2 mm above the microelectrode defined dorsal border of the STN. Gamma activity dropped again 3 mm below the microelectrode defined dorsal border of the STN. Spike-triggered averages of LFP activity suggested that the discharges of neurons in this region were locked to gamma oscillations in the LFP. Gamma band oscillations in the LFP are therefore likely to represent synchronous activity in populations of neurons in the upper STN and bordering zona incerta of patients with PD.