Different functional loops between cerebral cortex and the subthalmic area in Parkinson's disease.
Fogelson N., Williams D., Tijssen M., van Bruggen G., Speelman H., Brown P.
We investigate the extent to which functional circuits coupling cortical and subthalamic activity are multiple and segregated by frequency in untreated Parkinson's disease (PD). To this end, we recorded EEG and local field potentials (LFPs) from macroelectrodes inserted into the subthalamic nucleus area (SA) in nine awake patients following functional neurosurgery for PD. Patients were studied after overnight withdrawal of medication. Coherence between EEG and SA LFPs was apparent in the theta (3-7 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), lower beta (14-20 Hz) and upper beta (21-32 Hz) bands, although activity in the alpha and upper beta bands dominated. Theta coherence predominantly involved mesial and lateral areas, alpha and lower beta coherence the mesial and ipsilateral motor areas, and upper beta coherence the midline cortex. SA LFPs led EEG in the theta band. In contrast, EEG led the depth LFP in the lower and upper beta bands. SA LFP activity in the alpha band could either lead or lag EEG. Thus there are several functional sub-loops between the subthalamic area and cerebral cortical motor regions, distinguished by their frequency, cortical topography and temporal relationships. Tuning to distinct frequencies may provide a means of marking and segregating related processing, over and above any anatomical segregation of processing streams.