Sex-specific adhd-like behaviour, altered metabolic functions and altered eeg activity in sialyltransferase st3gal5-deficient mice
Strekalova T., Veniaminova E., Svirin E., Kopeikina E., Veremeyko T., Yung AWY., Proshin A., Tan SZK., Khairuddin S., Lim LW., Lesch KP., Walitza S., Anthony DC., Ponomarev ED.
A deficiency in GM3-derived gangliosides, resulting from a lack of lactosylceramide-al-pha-2,3-sialyltransferase (ST3GAL5), leads to severe neuropathology, including epilepsy and metabolic abnormalities. Disruption of ganglioside production by this enzyme may also have a role in the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. ST3Gal5 knock-out (St3gal5−/− ) mice lack a-, b-, and c-series gangliosides, but exhibit no overt neuropathology, possibly owing to the production of compensatory 0-series glycosphingolipids. Here, we sought to investigate the possibility that St3gal5−/− mice might exhibit attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behaviours. In addition, we evaluated potential metabolic and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. St3gal5−/− mice were subjected to behavioural testing, glucose tolerance tests, and the levels of expression of brain and peripheral A and B isoforms of the insulin receptor (IR) were measured. We found that St3gal5−/− mice exhibit locomotor hyperactivity, impulsivity, neophobia, and anxiety-like behaviour. The genotype also altered blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance. A sex bias was consistently found in relation to body mass and peripheral IR expression. Analysis of the EEG revealed an increase in amplitude in St3gal5−/− mice. Together, St3gal5−/− mice exhibit ADHD-like be-haviours, altered metabolic and EEG measures providing a useful platform for better understand-ing of the contribution of brain gangliosides to ADHD and associated comorbidities.