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Isotropic photorefraction is a technique which makes possible the rapid, economic, large scale screening of infants and young children for refractive errors. The relative size of blur circles reflected from the fundus in 3 flash photographs with different camera settings allows the size and direction of refractive errors to be estimated. The method has been validated against retinoscopic measures on a large group of infants. Findings of a high incidence of astigmatism in the first year are confirmed. Detection of hypermetropia in early infancy by this screening procedure may allow preventive treatment for accommodative strabismus.


Journal article


Acta Ophthalmol Suppl

Publication Date





36 - 45


Astigmatism, Child, Preschool, Humans, Hyperopia, Infant, Mass Screening, Myopia, Ophthalmoscopy, Photography, Refraction, Ocular, Refractive Errors