Biallelic ADPRHL2 mutations in complex neuropathy affect ADP ribosylation and DNA damage response.
Beijer D., Agnew T., Rack JGM., Prokhorova E., Deconinck T., Ceulemans B., Peric S., Milic Rasic V., De Jonghe P., Ahel I., Baets J.
ADP ribosylation is a reversible posttranslational modification mediated by poly(ADP-ribose)transferases (e.g., PARP1) and (ADP-ribosyl)hydrolases (e.g., ARH3 and PARG), ensuring synthesis and removal of mono-ADP-ribose or poly-ADP-ribose chains on protein substrates. Dysregulation of ADP ribosylation signaling has been associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. Recessive ADPRHL2/ARH3 mutations are described to cause a stress-induced epileptic ataxia syndrome with developmental delay and axonal neuropathy (CONDSIAS). Here, we present two families with a neuropathy predominant disorder and homozygous mutations in ADPRHL2 We characterized a novel C26F mutation, demonstrating protein instability and reduced protein function. Characterization of the recurrent V335G mutant demonstrated mild loss of expression with retained enzymatic activity. Although the V335G mutation retains its mitochondrial localization, it has altered cytosolic/nuclear localization. This minimally affects basal ADP ribosylation but results in elevated nuclear ADP ribosylation during stress, demonstrating the vital role of ADP ribosylation reversal by ARH3 in DNA damage control.