Patterns of Growth in Childhood in Relation to Adult Schooling Attainment and Intelligence Quotient in 6 Birth Cohorts in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Evidence from the Consortium of Health-Oriented Research in Transitioning Societies (COHORTS).
Poveda NE., Hartwig FP., Victora CG., Adair LS., Barros FC., Bhargava SK., Horta BL., Lee NR., Martorell R., Mazariegos M., Menezes AMB., Norris SA., Richter LM., Sachdev HS., Stein A., Wehrmeister FC., Stein AD., COHORTS Group None.
BACKGROUND: Growth faltering has been associated with poor intellectual performance. The relative strengths of associations between growth in early and in later childhood remain underexplored. OBJECTIVES: We examined the association between growth in childhood and adult human capital in 5 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: We analyzed data from 9503 participants in 6 prospective birth cohorts from 5 LMICs (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used linear and quasi-Poisson regression models to assess the associations between measures of height and relative weight at 4 age intervals [birth, age ∼2 y, midchildhood (MC), adulthood] and 2 dimensions of adult human capital [schooling attainment and Intelligence Quotient (IQ)]. RESULTS: Meta-analysis of site- and sex-specific estimates showed statistically significant associations between size at birth and height at ∼2 y and the 2 outcomes (P