Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

The use of cryo-techniques in macromolecular crystallography has increased enormously over the last eight years and has become a vital part of modern X-ray data-collection methods. This paper presents some reasons for the rise in popularity of cryo-techniques and a brief outline of the basic methods, followed by a detailed discussion of factors to be considered when trying to optimize both the quantity and quality of the data collected. As more experimenters at synchrotrons observe significant radiation damage to crystals held near 100 K, the available options for further prolonging crystal lifetime and extending the techniques become worth investigating. Some possibilities and parameters to be considered are presented, although these must remain speculative until more experimental data are available.

Original publication




Journal article


Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr

Publication Date





1641 - 1653


CDC2-CDC28 Kinases, Crystallization, Crystallography, X-Ray, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2, Cyclin-Dependent Kinases, Cytochrome c Group, Cytochromes, Freezing, Glycerol, Neuraminidase, Nitrite Reductases, Osmolar Concentration, Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases, Ribonuclease, Pancreatic, Salmonella typhimurium, Software, Water