Low luminance visual acuity and low luminance deficit in choroideremia and rpgr-associated retinitis pigmentosa
Wood LJ., Jolly JK., Josan AS., Buckley TMW., Maclaren RE.
Introduction: Choroideremia and RPGR-associated retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are two distinct inherited rod-cone degenerations, where good visual acuity (VA) is maintained until late disease stages, limiting its usefulness as a disease marker. Low luminance VA and low luminance deficit (standard VA minus low luminance VA) may be more sensitive visual function measures. Methods: Standard VA was obtained using Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letter charts (Precision Vision, Bloomington, IL, USA). Low luminance VA was assessed using a 2.0-log unit neutral density filter, with the same chart setup, without formal dark adaptation. Mean central retinal sensitivity was assessed using MAIA microperime-try (Centervue SpA, Padova, Italy). Optical coherence tomography imaging was attained with Heidelberg Eye Explorer software (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). Results: Twenty-four male participants with confirmed pathogenic RPGR mutations, 44 male participants with confirmed pathogenic CHM mutations, and 62 age-matched controls underwent clinical assessment prior to clinical trial recruitment. Low luminance VA was significantly reduced in both disease groups compared to controls. The low luminance deficit correlated with microperimetry retinal sensitivity and ellipsoid zone width. Eleven participants with moderate VA had poor low luminance VA (subsequently a large low luminance deficit), no detectable microperimetry sensitivity, and severely constricted ellipsoid zone widths. Conclusions: Low luminance VA and subsequently low luminance deficit are useful markers of central macular visual function in both choroideremia and RPGR-associated RP, when standard VA is preserved.